On 4 June 1996, only about 40 seconds after initiation of the flight sequence, at an altitude of about 3700 m, the Ariane 5 broke up and exploded.

Explosion of first Ariane 5 flight, June 4, 1996 https://www.esa.int/

An independent Inquiry Board was appointed and gave out a complete report.

“ The failure of Ariane 501 was caused by the complete loss of guidance and attitude information 37 seconds after the start of the main engine ignition sequence (30 seconds after lift-off). This loss of information was due to specification and design errors in the software of the inertial reference system. …


Category Theory is a branch of mathematics. It’s the purest one since it’s all about abstraction. Well, it should not come as a surprise since many people think that math preexists human intelligence and it lives in the divine realm of ideas. So, if for any reason some particular resistant virus wiped the human race from the face of the earth, euclidean triangles just to say, would be always there to poke their angles into some other alien’s eyes. Math is innate, the universe is built on its order.

Photo by v2osk on Unsplash

We got the main point in Category Theory: abstraction, we want…


Nature is working on creating unique individuals, whereas culture has invented a single blueprint to which all people should conform. It is madness. The problem with identity is that while you spend time creating a “persona,” a mask, at the very core nothing is there. Identity’s not a substitute for your individuality, that’s why it so hard to acquire and so hard to maintain.

Photo by Ethan Wong on Unsplash

In Category Theory identity it’s just an arrow that starts from the object and ends to it. Somehow the object and the subject are the same. And today we start with a simple scenario. We want…


When renowned philosopher U. G. Krishnamurti came to visit Ramana Maharshi he knew that uncountable people had experienced a tremendous peace in his presence.

But he felt nothing. So after a while, he asked: “Swami, are there any steps to reach the stage of liberation?”

And Ramana answered: “There are not such steps nor stages. If it’s there, it is absolute and unchangeable. On the other hand, if it’s not there, everything is missing.”

U. G. Krishnamurti seemed unsatisfied: “Sir, I’m asking can you give me what you have?”

Ramana Maharshi answered: “I can give it!” …


Natural languages and programming languages are often compared for a simple reason: they both try to define some meaning and the latter also procedural steps to achieve some goal.

Natural Languages.

Also, natural languages can be used to define a list of paces, the typical example being a todo list or a recipe. But a natural language has great limitations, it is:

  1. Ambiguous;
  2. Redundant;
  3. Recursive;
  4. Arbitrary;
  5. Growing;

That’s why we have poetry and literature!!!

The Sick Rose, written by William Blake, is abundant of ambiguities:

O Rose thou art sick.The invisible worm,That flies in the nightIn the howling storm:

The Bongard problem is simple. The name comes from computer scientist Mikhail Moiseevich Bongard, the first to put in use a meta-rational approach to problem-solving.

It’s a drawing split into two parts. On both sides of it, usually, six geometrical pictures are drawn. The problem aims to find one, and only one solution that explains the similarity between the two pairs of six pictures.

The problem could look similar to any IQ logic test provided to students in the past decades. But, it’s not.

There are some elements characterizing the Bongard problem.

First, even if there are many parts of…


In programming languages, a type system is a logical system that comprises variables, expressions, functions, or modules. These types, every one in its own, form categories of sets. The main purpose of this system is, of course, to reduce possibilities for bugs defining interfaces and consistency checks.

The reason why we have objects in any category is to mark the origin and the end of morphisms.

Objects and morphisms are both primitive concepts. But somehow morphisms are more important. …


Fictionalism in Computer Science opposes the idea that data structures and programs are somehow abstract platonic ideas that can be implemented in any language.

Platonism suggests the view that programs are abstract objects and that the way they are implemented provides a true description of the reality that they are referring to.

For instance, in the platonist way, the sentence “the program A describes a problem or solves a problem” provides a truth independent from the architecture or the language used. So while code is provided, the program A is an abstract object. …


Photo by Dmitry Demidko on Unsplash

A theory of value is an economic theory that attempts to explain why goods and services are priced as they are, how the value of goods and services comes about, and, if such a value exists, how to measure it.

One of the questions always asked is: does Bitcoin or any other cryptocurrencies have an intrinsic value? How do we compare them with Fiat Currency? Since the latter are not backed anymore by any gold or silver and they are similar to cryptocurrencies, being just a measure of the trust that people have over their government or state.

Bitcoin holds…


Photo by Alexander Schimmeck on Unsplash

When Emil Mazey, secretary-treasurer of the United Auto Workers at a labor meeting in 1946 raised, pointed at someone accusing him of being a communist, he said: “I can’t prove you are a Communist. But when I see a bird that quacks like a duck, walks like a duck, has feathers and webbed feet, and associates with ducks — I’m certainly going to assume that he is a duck.”

Emil used a form of reasoning in which it is necessary to investigate an unknown problem by observing similar characteristics that occur in other cases. It’s called the duck test.

Let’s…

Mauro Ghiani

A complete non sequitur being.

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